Sunday, March 8, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ This twisted tale of a small farming community that is far from normal or peaceful. Jackson, continuously uses the setting to creates a mood of peacefulness and tranquility. This creates an image of a typical small farming community on a normal summer day. This setting foreshadows an ironic ending that is far from normal or peaceful. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , by Shirley Jackson, displays numerous examples of irony throughout the setting in telling the tale of a small townÃ¢â¬â¢s strange and brutal annual ritual. Shirley Jackson, begins her story by establishing the setting. She tells what time of day and what time of year the story takes place. It is important to focus on what a typical day is in this small town. The time of day is set in the morning and the time of year is early summer. School has just recently let out for summer break, and children are getting used to the newly found freedom and the prospect of all of the adventures to be had. Jackson describes the town as that of any normal rural community. She describes the grass as "richly green" and that "the flowers were blooming profusely". These descriptions of the surroundings give a picture of beauty and life in bloom. There is a serene feeling about the sleepy little town. This makes the audience feel comfortable about the surroundings as if there was nothing wrong in the town. In the first paragraph, Jackson describes the town in general. She puts in perspective the location of the townÃ¢â¬â¢s square "between the post office and the bank". This aides in visualizing what a small town this is, since everything seems to be centralized at or near the town square. This is also key in that the town square is the location for the remaining part of the story. She creates a comfortable atmosphere while describing the people of the town. The children are gathering together and breaking into "boisterous play". They are described as gathering rocks, which is a norma... Free Essays on Lottery Free Essays on Lottery Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ This twisted tale of a small farming community that is far from normal or peaceful. Jackson, continuously uses the setting to creates a mood of peacefulness and tranquility. This creates an image of a typical small farming community on a normal summer day. This setting foreshadows an ironic ending that is far from normal or peaceful. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , by Shirley Jackson, displays numerous examples of irony throughout the setting in telling the tale of a small townÃ¢â¬â¢s strange and brutal annual ritual. Shirley Jackson, begins her story by establishing the setting. She tells what time of day and what time of year the story takes place. It is important to focus on what a typical day is in this small town. The time of day is set in the morning and the time of year is early summer. School has just recently let out for summer break, and children are getting used to the newly found freedom and the prospect of all of the adventures to be had. Jackson describes the town as that of any normal rural community. She describes the grass as "richly green" and that "the flowers were blooming profusely". These descriptions of the surroundings give a picture of beauty and life in bloom. There is a serene feeling about the sleepy little town. This makes the audience feel comfortable about the surroundings as if there was nothing wrong in the town. In the first paragraph, Jackson describes the town in general. She puts in perspective the location of the townÃ¢â¬â¢s square "between the post office and the bank". This aides in visualizing what a small town this is, since everything seems to be centralized at or near the town square. This is also key in that the town square is the location for the remaining part of the story. She creates a comfortable atmosphere while describing the people of the town. The children are gathering together and breaking into "boisterous play". They are described as gathering rocks, which is a norma...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Dissertation- Introduction and theoretical background - Essay Example a 228-home tower block, an exemplary innovation which satisfies the Energy Efficient Building requirements; also exhibiting values of sustainability like ensuring the well being of its inhabitants, signifying usability and appropriation of space (BNPParibas, 2012). High-rise tower blocks were made possible as living systems with the advent of the elevator (Princeton, 2012). A Tower Block or a High-Rise is a tall multi-story building or structure used for residential or official purposes, occasionally also referred to as an MDU, Multi Dwelling Unit (Princeton, 2012). They offer not only accommodation but also consist of offices, shops and other community based needs. Tower blocks are becoming a distinguished accommodation solution in the highly populated cities around the world, as they provide technical and economical advantages in urban settings with high density population (Price & Myers, 2012). High-rise towers provide dwelling for more people than solitary homes, while occupying less space and can specially be resourceful in communities with single unit families/couples. High rise tower blocks have been a part of urban high population solution for a long time. Its traces are found through history; in major cities like ancient Rome along with other large cities of the empire; to the Roman Egypt which consisted of up to seven stories buildings; to the Arabian Egypt which had buildings to house hundreds of people in number (Princeton, 2012). The concept of the tower block has been evolving with the ages as people evolve as a society. Where there are those who advocate the residential high rise tower blocks as a solution to the dense cities of the modern times; others tend to view it as an unsuitable solution for the modern city with no pedestrian presence, density, and movement, thus bearing no resemblance with the concept of a traditional city (Pagliardini, Porta & Salingaros, 2008). Traditional cities are known for their hustle and bustle, and the
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Reading reflection juvies - Essay Example One such advantage is that a jury takes the responsibility of administering justice to the minor. This is advantageous to the juveniles because the process will promote transparency during the trial. Members of a jury can be sympathetic to juveniles, leading to acquittals, or lighter punishments. However, the disadvantages outweigh the advantages of transferring the juveniles to an adult court system. In an adult court, chances are high that juveniles will get a harsher punishment, in comparison to the punishment they would get in a juvenile court. This is because an adult court treats them as adults; therefore, they qualify to receive the same punishments an adult will receive in the given trial. These children will suffer from stigma which emanates from a trial and a conviction under an adult court. The effect is that their self-esteem becomes low, leading to lack of confidence and self-worthiness. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that trial under an adult court exposes the crimes of these children, and this further leads to erosion of their confidence. Basing on these arguments, it is not good or ethical for a minor to be subjected to an adult court process. This will make them to be socially vulnerable, and impossible to reform them. They will suffer stigma, and their self-esteem will be undermined. At the adult prisons, these children will be vulnerable to manipulations by adult offenders. They will learn new ways of crime, coming out of the system as criminals, instead of rehabilitated offenders. However, some people would disagree with my opinion. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that a juvenile who commits a serious offense such as murder and homicide, should be treated as an adult. This will have an effect of deterring minor offenders from committing such kind of crimes. However, this argument is baseless because these offenders are always ignorant on issues that deal with law. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that children as young as 13 years who commit serious crimes shoul d be transferred to an adult court. However, in my own opinion, this age bracket is too low, because their minds are not yet fully developed to understand the justice system. This is also their age of adolescence; thus, they are vulnerable to act in ways that the society does not accept. On this note, should a waiver occur, the best age is 16 years. This is because at this age, the child is above the juvenile rehabilitation system and he can sustain the pressures that are characterized by a trial at an adult court. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that crimes commited by juveniles that ought to be taken to an adult court are murder, homicide cases, rape, carjacking, robbery with violence and criminal gang intimidations. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that during this process, there are two people who can determine whether a minor should be transferred to an adult court for trial. These are the prosecutor and the juvenile judge. A prosecutor can apply for waiver from the courts, but the judge afte r looking at the evidence presented, and the background of the child, he can decide to transfer the case to an adult court, or retain it at the juvenile court. These transfers should not be automatic upon application by the prosecutor, because prosecutors can miss out on important factors that made the child to commit such kind of a crime because of his interest in the case. On this note, an independent person is required to make the decision, and this person is the
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
External Factors Affect On Organisations | Case Study External factors have an immediate effect on an organizations planning. Marketing a product takes thorough planning. Managers organize ideas on where to market a product that provides benefits to other countries. Leading globalization can be difficult because other countries may not want to use a product they are unfamiliar with. Therefore, a thorough explanation of why a product would be beneficial in another country is very important (Moon, 2010). The cell phone for instance has brought forth much controversy. Rates, service areas for Internet, communication, contractual agreements, and a wide range of other issues have been broad topics for subscribers of cell phones. To control globalization, cell phone providers must have management teams that extend enough information about products to other countries to determine if the product is marketable around the globe (Moon, 2010). Information is organized through technology; via Internet so customers are better informed regarding price, and other vital information before purchasing. Innovative technology has brought forth social networking sites. Companies such as Google have created blog forums where customers can share thoughts about a product hence, making others aware before purchasing. 1.2.the needs and Expectations of stakeholders in orchid The board of Piramal Healthcare has approved the spin-off of the New Chemical Entity (NCE) from Piramal Life Sciences, reports CNBC-TV18. The unit will then be merged with parent. According to the company filing with BSE, shareholders will be issued one fully paid up equity share of Rs 2 of parent Piramal Healthcare for every four shares of Rs 10 held of Piramal Life Sciences. Investment in NCE research calls for sharper research focus, longer time horizon and higher risk appetite, said a press release. CNBC-TV18 had earlier reported about how Piramal Health is more poised to take the risks arising from the drug discovery business than Piramal Life Sciences. This demerger is expected to be completed in six months, Ajay Piramal was quoted as saying. Piramal hopes, ultimately, to re-absorb Piramal Life Sciences back into the company. According to CNBC-TV18, long-term strategies of the company include hiking capacity in active pharmaceutical ingredients segment and formulations business. 1.3. major changes taking place in the external environment it affects stretegy This process is most applicable to strategic management at the business unit level of the organization. For large corporations, strategy at the corporate level is more concerned with managing a portfolio of businesses. For example, corporate level strategy involves decisions about which business units to grow, resource allocation among the business units, taking advantage of synergies among the business units, and mergers and acquisitions. In the process outlined here, company or firm will be used to denote a single-business firm or a single business unit of a diversified firm. Once the firm has specified its objectives, it begins with its current situation to devise a strategic plan to reach those objectives. Changes in the external environment often present new opportunities and new ways to reach the objectives. An environmental scan is performed to identify the available opportunities. The firm also must know its own capabilities and limitations in order to select the opportunities that it can pursue with a higher probability of success. The situation analysis therefore involves an analysis of both the external and internal environment. The external environment has two aspects: the macro-environment that affects all firms and a micro-environment that affects only the firms in a particular industry. The macro-environmental analysis includes political, economic, social, and technological factors and sometimes is referred to as a PEST analysis. 2.1. Appropriate Tools to analyse Current business Plan What next? This is the question on the minds of the shareholders. We have drawn up a growth blueprint for the company, segregated into short and medium-term business drivers focusing on ramping up of the existing business verticals, creating front-end marketing organisations and entering new high-growth product segments. In the short term, we have identified key areas which will drive business growth for your company. We will cater to the API needs of Hospira and other global innovators in addition to our regular API and formulation sales in the emerging markets. We will strengthen our geographical presence in key regulated markets like the US, Europe and Japan. Currently, we are marketing around 10 products in the oral cephalosporins segment and 5 products in the NPNC (Non-penicillin, Non-cephalosporin) segment. Your company will further strengthen its product basket for catering to these markets. Our focus on acquiring front-end marketing companies possessing infrastructure, people, product registrations and approvals will augur well in the medium term. Our product pipeline in the regulated markets will be filled with our own molecules, ANDAs and in-licensed products. This will help us strengthen our product basket and maximise and internalise value which was earlier shared with our marketing partners. 2.2.Orchid Chemicals in its current market Since inception, your company established a strong foothold in niche therapeutic segments which are relatively uncluttered due to the inherent technical complexity. In doing so, your company grew in size and is now a global name in its operating domains. In recent times, your companys performance in the global and domestic markets could not translate into robust growth for the company and superior shareholder value creation. This was primarily owing to the sizeable debt burden which weighed heavy on your companys profitability. With the debt levels coming down and with a strong growth strategy in place, this is set to change going forward. My fellow shareholders may have a number of apprehensions about the future of the company 2.3.competitive strength and weakness e expect strong year-on-year growth over the next three years by focusing on the non-penicillin, non-cephalosporin (NPNC) segment where we possess a strong basket of over 73 products spanning diverse therapeutic areas. We possess marketing alliances in the US and Europe with prominent players such as Actavis, North Star and Alvogen for 31 NPNC products. We also expect to capitalise on Para IV opportunities; our 8 Para IV FTF filings provide a revenue potential of about US$ 80 Mn. A favourable outcome in any patent challenge litigation could result in our being awarded the 180-day exclusivity. 3.1. strategic options What next? This is the question on the minds of the shareholders. We have drawn up a growth blueprint for the company, segregated into short and medium-term business drivers focusing on ramping up of the existing business verticals, creating front-end marketing organisations and entering new high-growth product segments. In the short term, we have identified key areas which will drive business growth for your company. We will cater to the API needs of Hospira and other global innovators in addition to our regular API and formulation sales in the emerging markets. We will strengthen our geographical presence in key regulated markets like the US, Europe and Japan. Currently, we are marketing around 10 products in the oral cephalosporins segment and 5 products in the NPNC (Non-penicillin, Non-cephalosporin) segment. Your company will further strengthen its product basket for catering to these markets. 3.2. comparative understanding of an activity The performance of your company in the first quarter of the current financial year reflects the start of a robust growth journey. Going forward, your company is well poised to ramp up its API and formulations business based on specific product-market contracts and regulatory filings which will help spread the growth canvas wider. We entered into an out-licensing and distribution agreement with the US-based pharma major Alvogen for marketing 8 oral non-antibiotic generic formulations in the US market. These products cater to the high-growth therapeutic segments of CNS and osteoporosis, among others and have a cumulative addressable market size estimated at USD 8 billion. Your company also recently acquired Karalex Pharma, LLC, a US-based generic marketing and sales services company through an all-cash deal for creating a front-end presence in the US market to deliver generic products to the US customers directly. Karalex Pharma is a leading provider of generic pharmaceuticals, focused exclusively on the US healthcare market. 3.4. future organizational strategy Our focus on acquiring front-end marketing companies possessing infrastructure, people, product registrations and approvals will augur well in the medium term. Our product pipeline in the regulated markets will be filled with our own molecules, ANDAs and in-licensed products. This will help us strengthen our product basket and maximise and internalise value which was earlier shared with our marketing partners. 4.1. participation from all stake holders I take the opportunity to thank the Central and State governments, financial institutions, public and private sector banks, government agencies and non-government institutions for extending their support in your companys growth and development. 4.2. potential options for strategy plan I thank your companys valued business stakeholders namely vendors, customers, strategic alliance partners and business associates for their exceptional support during difficult times, in accomplishing our business plans. Most importantly, I acknowledge the critical role played by the employees whose contribution to your companys business growth has been paramount. On behalf of the Board, I would like to thank all the shareholders for their unstinted support in helping your company enhance its technological and business strengths and remain on the growth path. 4.3.strtegy plan includes resorce implication: n the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) segment, your company increased its cumulative US DMF filing count to 82. The break-up of the total filings is: 30 in the cephalosporin Segment, 39 in NPNC segment, 2 in the betalactam segment and 11 in the carbapenems segment. The cumulative filings of CoS (Certificate of Suitability) for the European market stood at 20 which includes 13 in cephalosporin segment, 6 in the NPNC segment and 1 in the betalactam segment. With a robust product development pipeline, your Companys filing and approval count is poised to increase in the coming months and quarters. 5.1. organizational Values: Most organisations are mostly driven by strategies. We are also driven by values. Corporate Social Responsibility Respect for the Individual Excellence Innovation Value for Stakeholders 5.2 vission and mission statements: Vision Enriching Lives through Innovation in Healthcare Mission Discovery to Delivery Orchid is a vertically integrated pharmaceutical company with established research, manufacturing and marketing capabilities across multi-therapeutic domains. We successfully leverage our penchant for science and technology to create niche products and manufacturing platforms leading to attractive growth. 5.3. Future Management Objrctive: Innovation drives growth. Sensitive to market needs and committed to innovation, here at Orchid we focus on niche product manufacturing platforms, combining cutting-edge technology and the best minds in the business. Valuing People We value individuality and creativity. Our unique People and Process Paradigm helps achieve the twin objective emphasis on regulatory and compliance on one hand, while fostering innovation and creativity on the other. Peak Performance We seek to build a sustainable organisational eco-system where one is constantly motivated to attain new heights and empowered to discover new avenues for growth. Quality Quality has always been a strong part of Orchids proposition. Our quality initiative covers all aspects including product quality, operational quality, environmental quality and finally a good quality of life for our people. Harmony with Society We seek to balance environmental impact and economic interest in all our business activities. Committed to the development of the society, culture and economy, we dutifully observe laws; demonstrate high ethical standards and endeavour to preserve the environment. 5.4. Evaluating Stretegy Plan Government: It has the mechanics to receive and document the needs of society. It also has the legislative and administrative power to take forward development programs. Industry: It has the strength of technology and managerial skills required to identify solutions and execute projects in a time-bound manner. NGOs and other Institutions: They penetrate deep into the community to propagate ideas and act as a vibrant feedback mechanism. We have always believed that enhancing the social well-being of individuals would add a lot more meaning to our overall business existence. Caring for the people and the community has therefore been an important facet of our business philosophy. We are happy that we have influenced the lives of several people in the vicinity of our facilitates through the several initiatives and programmes undertaken by the Trust. 6.1. Schedule for implementing stretgic planning Our oral non-cephalosporin formulations facility specialises in the manufacturing of nutraceutical products. The facility produces a range of dietary supplements for the advanced markets. Many other high-value products like anti-diabetics, cardio vascular drugs (CVS), anti-depressants and anti-epileptics are manufactured in this facility to cater to the emerging markets. 6.2. To gain commitment from stake holders We have a long tradition of successful collaborations. Our approach to partnerships has been path-breaking and successful in the Indian pharmaceutical industry in terms of product and market coverage and leveraging each others partnership strengths. They are an essential and integral part of our research and business strategy. Every day, we commit ourselves to aligning our capabilities with business opportunities and everything we do is based on being easy to work with to ensure mutual success. We continuously engage in new projects to aid technology development, development of new molecules, chemical process enhancement and innovative drug delivery systems development 6.3.monitoring the evaluation system for the implementation of a strategy plan rchid has emerged as a full-fledged pharmaceutical corporation with end-to-end connectivity from discovery to delivery. Each alliance we build is based on a shared vision with well-defined goals and objectives. We have the ability to leverage and represent our entire portfolio of products and services based on their core competencies, partner great models, build and sustain operations. By pooling the talents of our science and business teams, we have engaged in numerous collaborations with a range of companies and research institutions. We look to build upon our existing strengths as well as to create new areas of expertise. Lab Report: Heat Capacity Ratio For Gases Lab Report: Heat Capacity Ratio For Gases Jekathjenani Ratnakumaran Introduction: Heat capacity of gases is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one mole of the gas through one degree Celsius at constant pressure or volume. Heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp), the volume will increase and heat capacity at constant volume (CV), the pressure will increase. The main physical properties of gases are compressed in the state, expand themselves to fill the entire containers, and thus obeys the second law of thermodynamics. It occupies more space, compare to liquids and solids. Gases has no fixed shape. The physical state of the gases can be defined by, PV = nRT P- pressure of the gas, V- Volume of the gas, T- Temperature of the gas, n- number of moles of the substance present on the gas and R- Gas constant. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of the heat capacity ratio, Ã ³ = Cp/CV for giving gases such as argon, oxygen, nitrogen and nitrous oxide using adiabatic expansion. This experiment is mainly based on measuring the pressure of the gases. Pressure can be measured by the force applied by the collision of the molecules or atoms with the surface or the walls of the tube. Pressure is measured in psi (Pounds per Square Inch) unit using manometer (P.Atkins et al, 2008). At room temperature, nitrogen is a colorless diatomic molecule of gas. It occupied 78.09% of earths atmosphere. Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms and about 3% of nitrogen are available in human body. Similarly, oxygen is a colorless, diatomic molecules and occupied about 20.95% earths atmosphere. Its a highly reactive organic element and also it plays an important role in the respiration mechanism. Argon is another important gas, also called as inert gas as it is stable. It occupied about 0.93% of earths atmosphere and its colorless, nontoxic element. Nitrous oxide is a colorless, nonflammable gas and also known as laughing gas. It also takes place in the earths atmosphere as it is produced by the bacteria in the soil and ocean. Adiabatic expansion is the process which takes place with no transfer of heat between the system and surroundings. The ratio, Ã ³ will be compared with the theoretical value. Using the adiabatic expansion, three states of gas such as before the expansion (P1), immediately after expansion (P2) and after returning to room temperature (P3) can be observed. Based on these values, the heat capacity ratio can be determined. The ratio of heat capacity can be calculated using the following formula, Ã ³ ratio of heat capacity Cp- heat capacity at constant pressure Cv- heat capacity at constant volume Methods: This experiment was conducted by following the procedure given in the laboratory manual by the department of chemistry, Trent University. Related questions Answers: Ideal gas law, PV = nRT As the density, Ã = m/V, the density can be calculated using the above equation, Ã = PM / RT P = Pressure; M = Molar mass; R = gas constant; T = Temperature For Nitrogen, P = 14.476 psi = 1.018 kg/cm2 T = 22 0C = 295 K M = 0.028 Kg /mol R = 8.314 Jm3/Kmol = 84.784 x 10-6 m3 kg/cm2.K-1mol-1 Using the above calculation method, density of remaining gases was calculated. For oxygen, Ã = 1.301 Kgm-3 For argon, Ã = 1.595 Kgm-3 For nitrous oxide, Ã = 1.790Kgm-3 PV = nRT P = 14.550 psi = 0.9900 atm V = 30 L R = 0.08206 Latm/Kmol T = 295K n = 1.227 mol Molecules = n x 6.022 x1023 = 7.389 x 1023 molecules the carboy holds under prevailing laboratory conditions. For nitrogen, Collision frequency of molecules of nitrogen can be calculated using the following formula, N = 6.022 x 1023/ mol A = 0.60 m2 P = 0.985 atm = 99808.5066 pa R = 8.314 J/K mol = 8.314 Kg m2 /s2 K mol M = 28 g / mol = 0.028 Kg/mol T = 295 K Z = 1.736 x 1027 s-1 Results: Table 1 represents the observations and reading of pressure obtained for the Argon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Nitrous Oxide. The unit of pressure is recorded in psi. Figure 1 represents the heat capacity ratio of the given gases: nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon and Nitrous Oxide. Data Analysis Calculations: For Nitrogen: Ã ³1 = 0.02773 / 0.02111 = 1.3134 Mean value Nitrogen, Ã ³ = (Ã ³1 + Ã ³2 + Ã ³3) / 3 = (1.3134 + 1.2476 + 1.2834) / 3 = 1.2814 Discussion: The experiment was conducted with careful consideration to get the result as close as to the real value. However, due to the some experimental error involved in this experiment, the calculated values are not close to the literature value. The calculated heat capacity ratios for the given gases: nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and nitrous oxide are 1.2815, 1.0248, 1.4268, 1.0163 respectively. The literature heat capacity ratio values are 1.4000 (nitrogen), 1.6667 (argon), 1.4000 (oxygen) and 1.3100 (nitrous oxide) (P.Atkins et al, 2008). Figure 1 represents the heat capacity ratio of the given gases. Based on the graph shown on figure 1, heat capacity ratio of oxygen and nitrous oxide are lower than the nitrogen and argon. In comparison with the literature value, nitrogen and argon are closer to the calculated heat capacity value. However, the calculated percentage error is 8.46% and 14.4% respectively. In the case of oxygen and nitrous oxide, calculated value more deviated from the literatu re value and the calculated percentage error are 26.8% and 22.42% respectively. These differences between the calculated and literature value heat capacity ratio value occurred due to the experimental error. Equipments used in this experiment were used by the previous batch. As the experiment was conducted using the pre setup equipments, there might be an error in the flow of gases through the tubes. Due to these occurrences, there might be changes in the pressure. Since the flow rate of gases are in larger amount, it could have heavily affected the final results. Gas leak is one of the major concern which lead to decrease in pressure and affected the result. Moreover, the adjustment made at the flow rate of gases also might be lead to the error in the heat capacity value. As the digital manometer is open ended to the atmosphere, there might be an error due to the unstable atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, due to the weather condition (winter), temperature and pressure changes and might not favored to conduct the experiment. Conclusion: In conclusion, the heat capacity ratio of nitrogen, oxygen, argon and nitrous oxide were calculated using the adiabatic expansion. In order to get accuracy of result, the precision can be improved by more attention on the experimental procedure and handling the equipments. Also, accurate result can be made by observing the measurements such as notifying the pressure of gases and units in a proper manner. References K.Lunder et al (1999); Heat Capacity Ratios For Gases: The Sound Velocity Method, Physical Chemistry 301, Augustana College P. Atkins and J. de Paula, AtkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ Physical Chemistry, 8th ed., W. H.Freeman and Co., New York (2006).
Monday, January 20, 2020
Rheumatoid Arthritis or (RA) is an autoimmune disease that attacks the joints and connective tissue. The result is inflammation that produces permanent damage in the joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic syndrome that tends to be progressive and destructive as compared to Osteoarthritis or (OA), which is more of an age related disease caused by Ã¢â¬Å"wear and tearÃ¢â¬ of the joints. In contrast to (OA), rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by inflammation mostly of the joints, but is a general body disease. The type of joint that is chronically affected is the synovial joint. The bones that are at a synovial joint are covered by articular cartilage; which reduces friction and absorbs shock. The space between the articulating bones is called the synovial cavity, which is surrounded by an articular capsule. The outer layer of the capsule is called the fibrous capsule and consists of dense irregular connective tissue. The inner layer of the capsule is lined with the synovial membrane, which is composed of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers and may also contain adipose tissue. In a healthy joint the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid. The fluid not only reduces friction and lubricates the joint, but it also supplies nutrients and removes debris, wastes, and microbes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Rheumatoid arthritis affects twice as many women as it does men. It can develop in child hood, but in most cases it develops between the ages of twenty-five and fifty. Rheumatoid arthritis itself may not be inherited, but what can be inherited are the genes that may make someone more likely to develop the disease including those genes that control the immune system. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Normally the immune system protects your body against foreign proteins like bacteria, fungi, or viruses and it does this by attacking them and producing antibodies. In Rheumatoid arthritis the immune system loses itÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to tell the difference between these antigens and the bodies normal cells. The body begins to attack the normal cells by using its plasma cells to produce antibodies called serum rheumatoid factors (RF). The chemical messengers called cytokines control the inflammatory process. One of the key cytokines is called Tumor Necrosis Factor or TNF; which is part of the normal inflammatory process. People with rheumatoid arthritis have been foun... ...neumonitis, bone marrow suppression, and with long term use even malignancy. Treatment also consists of rest and a nutritious diet. Some supplements such as fish or plant oils can be taken to partially relief some of Cavezza 7 the symptoms because they can decrease the production of prostaglandins. Exercise and physiotherapy can restore muscle mass and help preserve the range of motion. This is recommended after the inflammation subsides. Another alternative if or when drugs fail is arthroscopic or surgical synovectomy, which temporarily relieves inflammation. Prosthetic replacement of joints is possible, but this greatly reduces the functionality. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Rheumatoid arthritis affects everyone differently. In most patients, joint symptoms develop gradually over several years. In some people, rheumatoid arthritis may progress rapidly. Other people may have rheumatoid arthritis for a limited period of time and then enter a period of remission. More than two million people in the United States alone have rheumatoid arthritis and with research and development of new drugs and gene therapy there may be a clearer picture of a patients future and quality of life.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The character of Montresor in, Ã¢â¬Å"The Cask of AmontilladoÃ¢â¬ is one who can only be defined with words along the lines of evil, or wicked. He vows to avenge the bold and childish Fortunato, whom Montresor swears did him wrong. Montresor could be described with many bold words, one being guilty. Though he is guilty, he is determined not to get caught. For instance, Montresor declares, Ã¢â¬Å"I must not only punish, but punish with impunityÃ¢â¬ (Poe, 1). Essentially, he is saying he will seek revenge on Fortunato, but he will get away with the vicious crime. Another obvious character trait for the devious Montresor, is dishonest. He claims to have obtained a cask of Amontillado, when the reader can tell through situational irony this is not true. He claims, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ I have received a pipe of what passes for Amontillado, but I have my doubtsÃ¢â¬ (Poe 1). Fortunato unknowingly follows the fiend, and in theory, seals his own fate. Montresor is also quite sneaky. He slyly gets Fortunato into a small inlet in his wine cellarÃ¢â¬â also a home for skeletal remains. He hastily chains him up before the poor Fortunato can even realize whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening. Explaining the situation, Montresor says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ inding his progress arrested by the rock, stood stupidly bewilderedÃ¢â¬ ¦ a moment more and i fettered him to the graniteÃ¢â¬ (Poe 4). Lastly, Montresor is just plain mysterious. Readers never know exactly why he decided to go after Fortunato, but it is hinted he offended the killer in some way. When asked about his coat of arms, Montresor blatantly states, Ã¢â¬Å"A human footÃ¢â¬ ¦ the foot crushes a serpent rampant whose fangs are imbedded in the heelÃ¢â¬ (Poe 3). The motto underneath is Ã¢â¬Å"nemo me impune lacessitÃ¢â¬ (Poe 3). To conclude, Montresor plays not only a degrading character, but one of many evils.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Abstract: - The contributions of Islamic mathematicians can be summarized as the consolidation of mathematical knowledge of the ancient cultures. But such limited description would ignore the innovations and developments that extended the knowledge acquired from Greek mathematicians and that served to lay the foundation for European Mathematicians. This paper will provide a brief summary of the contributions of Islamic mathematicians, with particular attention to The Father of Algebra and his contributions. As the reader will notice, the contributions of Islamic mathematicians reached the major branches of mathematics of their era by building upon the work of mathematicians of other cultures and leaving detailed records of their achievements and those of cultures past. Key-Words: - Al-khwarizmi, algebra, Khayyam, AlÃ¢â¬â¢Kashi. 1 Introduction Although world history books have documented the period of the Dark Ages in Europe, little has been added about the development of Mathematics in Islamic cultures that occurred during the same time period. Islamic Mathematicians not only translated the most important mathematical works of the Greeks and other cultures, but built upon the acquired knowledge by extending it and innovating new methods, techniques, and topics. While many students know the word algebra originated in the Middle East, few high school students today are aware of the Middle Eastern origin of various concepts and methods they learn in high school algebra class.Show MoreRelatedThe medieval Islamic world of science started as a controversial field to be working in. The1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe medieval Islamic world of science started as a controversial field to be working in. The scientific practices went against the beliefs of the people because it stated things that were the opposite of the readings in the Koran. Religious peoples said that Allah created everything in existence himself while scientists said that everything occurred naturally. Even though there was conflict over the beliefs of the people, the Islamic scientists still managed to prosper and produce a Golden Age ofRead MoreAn Article On Islamic Mathematics1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract: - This is an article on Islamic Mathematics. Islamic mathematics is dated back to the 8th and 13th centuries CE. The mathematics in the Middle East is an expansion of what great Greek philosophers had already found and studied. Much of what the Middle Eastern mathematicians discovered helped influence European mathematics. In fact, a lot of what high school math teachers teach our current generations is Algebra, which was discovered by an Islamic Mathematician. Key-Words: - Al-Khwarizmi, AlgebraRead MoreIslmaic Achievements and Muslim Contributions and Their Spread1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMuslim people made many exceptional achievements and great contributions that spread to and affected the entire world, particularly Europe. Several factors encouraged them to pursue experimentations and developments in different fields. First and foremost, the faithful Islamic people had to know the direction of Mecca as well as the time of day in order to know when and in which direction to pray. This meant they had to rely on mathematicians and astronomers to accurately calculate these. The rulersRead MoreAnnual Islamic Symposium On The Arts And Sciences1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSiddarth Kumar H Block Mathematics News Article Annual Islamic Symposium on The Arts and Sciences Inside Dover-Sherborn Regional High School In Room 214 the Annual Islamic Symposium on The Arts and Sciences has just concluded. The symposium was one of the most important events of our time, where notable scholars and key figures met in the Ã¢â¬Å"House of WisdomÃ¢â¬ in order to hold panel discussions and present displays on the advancements in the fields of Art and Science through the 15th century. MathematicsRead MoreImportant Discoveries And Contributions That Were Made By Three Famous Mathematicians1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract: - The many concepts we currently have in the field of mathematics are thanks to great mathematicians from different cultures throughout time. An important era when great mathematical discoveries were made was during Medieval Times, or the Middle Ages. In this paper we discuss important discoveries and contributions that were made by three famous mathematicians of this time period including French Nicole Oresme, German Jordanus Nemorarius and Italian Leonardo Pisano, better known for hisRead MoreWhy Do We Use Quadratic Equations?2263 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesIt might seem as if these contributions have no real world applications, however, that would be very incorrect. Completing the square is very useful for quadratic equations, which we have mentioned before. The question lies, where do we use quadratic equations? When projectiles are put int o motion they create a parabolic path, to calculate the speed and height at which they travel completing the square would come in handy. Another example would be traveling by boat, or foot, or any other methodRead MoreIslams Influences on the Modern World1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWestern civilisation has taken inspiration in the innovations and discoveries of great eastern empires such as the Greek, Roman and Byzantine. Arguably one of the most influential and historically significant empires to the development of Europe is the Islamic. Islam directly translates to Ã¢â¬Å"submissionÃ¢â¬ . It is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion, as well as an empire, (which is focused in the Middle East and Northern Africa). Islam is currently the second most practiced religion globally. Throughout the MiddlesRead MoreThe Egyptian And Babylonian Mathematicians1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthis article related to solving a cubic equation. The noteworthy mathematicians and their contributions to the solution and their understanding of the cubic equation is included. Also included is an example of a cubic equation solved using DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Factor Theorem. Index TermsÃ¢â¬âcomplex number, cubic equation, Descartes, Riehmen Sphere, Tartaglia Introduction Building on the successes of their ancient predecessors the mathematicians of the European Renaissance searched for an algebraic solution toRead MoreHow Did The Ottoman Empire Differ From Earlier And The Middle East?1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstory 02/28/2016 Mid-Term How did the Ottoman Empire differ from earlier Islamic empires in the Middle East? The Ottoman Empire, or Ottoman Turkish, was one of the longest in history, having gone through the whole modern era and only come to an end with the end of World War I in 1918. The event that is commonly taken by historians as the inaugurator of the Modern age is the fall of Constantinople, the center of the Byzantine Empire, and was triggered by the Turkish-Ottoman. Also, you certainlyRead MoreThe House of Wisdom and its Contribution to the Preservation of Knowledge1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis important because it addresses the academic advances with the Islamic civilization that lead to new information. To determine the extent of the contribution to the preservation of knowledge, this investigation will examine the achievements al-Khawarizmi made in science and the achievements that were made in this library and how they were preserved through time. The area of research will be focused during the time of the Islamic Golden Age, 750-1258, and in the city of Baghdad, where the Hous e